Common chimpanzee in the Leipzig Zoo. Image credit: Thomas Lersch, via Wikipedia. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2010 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Published in Biology Letters, researchers led by Satoshi Hirata from the Great Ape Research Institute of Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories in Japan reveal their findings on chimpanzee births. The researchers were able to observe the live births of three chimpanzees because they had developed a close relationship with the animals. Hirata and his team had essentially been living with these chimpanzees, even sleeping in the chimpanzee’s enclosures at night in order to be able to witness and capture the births on video. Before this research, no one had witnessed a live chimpanzee birth, as by nature chimpanzees get nervous at birth and seek isolation. During the births, they observed that, like humans, the babies are born facing away from the mother, or backwards.While they were witnessing the births, the researchers did not realize what they were about to discover would be something contributing to evolutionary theory. It was not until they had a discussion with a researcher in human childbirth that they discovered what their findings meant.Back in the 1980s, researchers suggested that a change in birthing position through human revolution was what led to the use of assistance with birth and midwifery. The idea behind this was that because the babies were born backwards, it made it difficult for a mother to pick up and nurture the baby as birth completed.Witnessing these chimpanzee births, and that fact that they are positioned the same as humans, show that this theory is not the case. Chimpanzees do not require another chimpanzee to assist with the birth, and as observed, they are more comfortable isolating themselves for birth.Wenda Trevathan, a biological anthropologist from New Mexico State University was the first to suggest this evolution to midwifery. While she never believed it was a necessity, she still believes it was an evolutionary change to something easier. She raises the question now that if the birthing of both humans and chimpanzees is similar, why is it that the chimpanzees have not moved toward having assistance with birth while humans have. Humans and chimpanzees, how similar are we? Explore further Citation: Chimpanzee birth similar to humans: study (2011, April 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-chimpanzee-birth-similar-humans.html More information: Mechanism of birth in chimpanzees: humans are not unique among primates, Biol. Lett. Published online before print April 20, 2011, doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0214AbstractResearchers have argued that the process of human birth is unique among primates and mammals in that the infant emerges with its face oriented in the opposite direction from its mother (occiput anterior) and head rotation occurs in the birth canal. However, this notion of human uniqueness has not been substantiated, because there are few comparative studies of birth in non-human primates. This paper reports the mechanism of birth in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) based on the first clear, close-up video recordings of three chimpanzee births in captivity. In all three cases, the foetus emerged with an occiput anterior orientation, and the head and body rotated after the head had emerged. Therefore, these characteristics are not uniquely human. Furthermore, in two of the three cases, the chimpanzee newborns landed on the ground without being guided from the birth canal by the mother. The fact that the human newborn emerges with an occiput anterior orientation has thus far been taken as evidence for the necessity of midwifery in modern humans, but this view also needs revision. Our observations raise the need to reconsider the evolutionary scenario of human birth.
© 2016 Phys.org (Phys.org)—A team of chemists at Columbia University in New York has for the first time linked together superatoms to make new types of molecules. As they note in their paper published in the journal Nano Letters, the technique may be used in the future to create unique materials with applications in magnetics and electronics. Journal information: Nano Letters This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Anouck M. Champsaur et al. Building Diatomic and Triatomic Superatom Molecules, Nano Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02471AbstractIn this study, we have developed a method to create Co6Se8 superatoms in which we program the metal–ligand bonds. We exclusively form the Co6Se8 core under simple reaction conditions with a facile separation of products that contain differential substitution of the core. The combination of Co2(CO)8 and PR3 with excess Se gives the differentially and directionally substituted superatoms, Co6Se8(CO)x(PR3)(6–x). The CO groups on the superatom can be exchanged quantitatively with phosphines and isonitriles. Substitution of the CO allows us to manipulate the type and length of chemical bridge between two redox-active superatomic centers in order to modulate intersuperatomic coupling. Linking two superatoms together allows us to form the simplest superatom molecule: a diatomic molecule. We extend the superatom molecule concept to link three superatoms together in a linear arrangement to form acyclic triatomic molecules. These superatom molecules have a rich electrochemical profile and chart a clear path to a whole family of superatom molecules with new and unusual collective properties. Evidence of magnetic superatoms could open doors to new spin electronics Credit: Nano Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02471 Superatoms are actually clusters of atoms that appear to exhibit many of the same properties as elemental atoms (their electrons form a shell around a middle core), but because they are made of many particles they can have their properties changed by changing their parts—which makes them ripe for experimentation. In this new effort, the researchers have built very simple molecules using just two or three superatoms suggesting that it might be possible to create exotic materials from them.Superatoms are generally created by heating material that causes vapor to form—as the vapor cools, the atoms condense naturally to form superatoms in magic number combinations. Prior efforts to create molecules from them have generally involved taking advantage of self-assembly processes and because of that have not been systematic.In this new effort the team configured their super-atoms with a core of eight selenium atoms and six cobalt atoms. Then they added ligands from several other atoms to serve as a means to bond the atoms together (because their surface was well defined) resulting in triatomic or diatomic molecules. The idea, the researchers suggest, is to learn more about the ways such molecules can be made in order to create something that is superior to the individual pieces. They report that the super-atoms can be made to bond in ways very similar to traditional atoms and that they were able to replace the carbonyl groups used initially with phosphine moieties or isocyanide, which made it possible to regulate the length and type of chemical bridges that were forged. They expect that any future materials made from the new kinds of molecules will be conductive, magnetic or both—and that they will be customizable.The group has plans to build larger molecules while tinkering with their properties to see what sorts of materials might be made from them. Citation: Linking superatoms to make molecules to use as building blocks for new materials (2016, July 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-07-linking-superatoms-molecules-blocks-materials.html Explore further
The “Lofotr” viking ship and the smaller “femkeiping”. Both recosntructions based on excavations from the Gokstad find. Credit: Geir Are Johansen/Wikipedia Experimentation suggests Vikings could have used sunstone to navigate © 2018 Phys.org Citation: Computer simulations show Viking’s sunstone to be very accurate (2018, April 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-simulations-viking-sunstone-accurate.html A pair of researchers with ELTE Eötvös Loránd University in Hungary has run computer simulations that suggest that tales of Vikings using a sunstone to navigate in cloudy weather might be true. In their paper published in Royal Society Open Science, Dénes Száz and Gábor Horváth describe the factors that contributed to their simulations and what they found by running them. More information: Success of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation: revealing the chance Viking sailors could reach Greenland from Norway, Published 4 April 2018. DOI: 10.1098/rsos.172187AbstractAccording to a famous hypothesis, Viking sailors could navigate along the latitude between Norway and Greenland by means of sky polarization in cloudy weather using a sun compass and sunstone crystals. Using data measured in earlier atmospheric optical and psychophysical experiments, here we determine the success rate of this sky-polarimetric Viking navigation. Simulating 1000 voyages between Norway and Greenland with varying cloudiness at summer solstice and spring equinox, we revealed the chance with which Viking sailors could reach Greenland under the varying weather conditions of a 3-week-long journey as a function of the navigation periodicity Δt if they analysed sky polarization with calcite, cordierite or tourmaline sunstones. Examples of voyage routes are also presented. Our results show that the sky-polarimetric navigation is surprisingly successful on both days of the spring equinox and summer solstice even under cloudy conditions if the navigator determined the north direction periodically at least once in every 3 h, independently of the type of sunstone used for the analysis of sky polarization. This explains why the Vikings could rule the Atlantic Ocean for 300 years and could reach North America without a magnetic compass. Our findings suggest that it is not only the navigation periodicity in itself that is important for higher navigation success rates, but also the distribution of times when the navigation procedure carried out is as symmetrical as possible with respect to the time point of real noon. Journal information: Royal Society Open Science Explore further For the time period 900 to 1200 AD, Vikings, by nearly all accounts, ruled the northern Atlantic. Their skill in building strong boats and in navigation allowed them to travel throughout the North Atlantic. Prior research has suggested the Vikings used a type of sundial to navigate, which was apparently quite accurate. But what did they do when it was cloudy or foggy? Viking tales passed down through the generations claimed it was through the use of sunstones, which allowed Viking navigators to find the sun even on cloudy days. But proving the tales true has been problematic—no sunstone has ever been found on or near a Viking shipwreck. A crystal was found on a 16th-century English shipwreck in 2002—and English sailors could have learned to use them from the Vikings—but much stronger evidence is needed.Most who have studied the possibility of a sunstone assume it was a form of crystal—it has been noted that some crystals, such as those formed from calcite, cordierite, and tourmaline, can split sunlight into two beams even when it is cloudy—and when the crystal is turned, splitting the two beams at the same brightness, a navigator could see the polarized rings around the sun—effectively showing its placement in the sky.Száz and Horváth noted that thus far, no one has actually tested the use of such crystals to navigate from Norway to Iceland, Greenland, or even North America, likely because one or two excursions would not be enough to prove its usefulness, especially if it was not cloudy very often during such a journey. A better approach, they thought, would be computer simulations of multiple trips from one single point in Norway to one point in Greenland. After inputting data describing such trips, the researchers ran the simulations multiple times over the course of two specific virtual days, the spring equinox and the summer solstice. They ran the trials for different types of crystals and with differing intervals between sunstone tests.The researchers report that they found mixed results overall, depending on which type of crystal was used and how often a mariner made a sun reading. In the best-case scenario, however, they found that using a cordierite crystal for a minimum of every three hours was approximately 92.2 to 100 percent accurate. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: New Journal of Physics This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Quantum theory is based heavily on probabilities, since measuring a quantum system doesn’t produce the same outcome every time, but instead yields one of many outcomes that each occur with a certain probability. Now in a new paper, physicists have presented a new quantum probability rule for assigning probabilities to measurement outcomes, or events, that essentially combines two of the most important quantum probability rules (the Born rule and the wave function collapse rule) into one. Citation: New quantum probability rule offers novel perspective of wave function collapse (2018, May 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-quantum-probability-perspective-function-collapse.html Credit: Shrapnel et al. Published in the New Journal of Physics © 2018 Phys.org A non-probabilistic quantum theory produces unpredictable results More information: Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn. “Updating the Born rule.” New Journal of Physics. DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/aabe12 Explore further The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. One of the most important probability rules in quantum theory is the Born rule, which gives the probability that a measurement yields a certain event. However, things get a little bit more complicated when predicting consecutive events. Although in classical scenarios it’s possible to assign joint probabilities to consecutive events using conditioning, in quantum scenarios this is not possible since each measurement necessarily disturbs the system. So in quantum mechanics, the state must be updated with this new information after every measurement.In order to update the state, a “state update rule” or “collapse rule” is applied. In the new paper, the physicists explain that this update is basically an “ad hoc ingredient,” since it is introduced as an axiom (which cannot be proved), and is a completely separate entity from the Born rule. Although this additional rule works well for practical purposes, it poses problems for understanding the true nature of quantum theory—in particular, for interpretations of quantum theory as a statement about the knowledge of reality, rather than of reality itself.To address these problems, the physicists propose and prove a unified probability rule, which they call the “Quantum Process Rule.” They show that this rule is more fundamental than the Born rule, as both the Born rule and the state update, or collapse, rule can be derived from this new rule—that is, the update rule does not need to be independently introduced. Unlike the Born rule, the Quantum Process Rule can assign joint probabilities to consecutive events. One of the interesting implications of showing that wave function collapse follows from the new probability rule is that it suggests that the collapse does not need to be regarded as a fundamental aspect of quantum theory. This implication offers an alternative perspective of wave function collapse, as well as a new understanding of the nature of quantum theory.”The main significance of the work is that we derive a single, unified probability rule that subsumes both the Born rule and the collapse rule,” Shrapnel told Phys.org. “This means that one no longer needs to explain wave function collapse in terms of a physical process, but can instead view this part of the formalism as simply a case of classical probabilistic conditioning. It is this latter possibility that means we can consider the quantum state as being about our knowledge rather than a direct description of physical reality.”
Professional Locha, a stand-up comedy show is going to be staged in the Capital on 14 September at Epicentre, Gurgaon. All of us have different professions and every profession has its own pros and cons. This show will present how professionals from different professional backgrounds discuss it and generate real comedy. It will highlight the frustration of a professional and the pressure he/she handles everyday. So if you are stuck in a boring job, or you are misfit at your workplace, or you are mad at your boss for being a pain in the posterior region, than make sure you get the venue on time. It won’t help your situation, but it’ll make you laugh at a screwed up life. The artistes performing are – Amit Tandon, Madhvendra, Mayank, Pratyush, Shashwat and Prakhar. This team of frustrated comedians will leave no profession untouched and no job untarnished.
Satiate your love for Bengali cuisine as The Imperial, New Delhi’s Executive Chef Vishal Atreya brings to you gourmet from Kolkata kitchens, the culinary capital of Bengal. From ‘Daab Chingri’ to ‘Shukto’ and ‘Ilish Maach Bhape’, the spices, the flavours and the aroma will delight you in each bite. Take on an epicurean sojourn of East India, only at The Imperial’s Daniell’s Tavern. But in the meanwhile you can try these two recipes at home!DAAB CHINGRI Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’INGREDIENTSprawn c-grade 1 kgmustard seeds 25 gmyellow chilli powder 10 gmcoconut milk 500 mlg/g paste 10 gmsalt to taste 15 gmcoconut green 5 nos.haldi powder 15 gmdesi ghee 150 gmcoriander leaves 10 gmginger 10 gmonion seeds 10 gmjeera powder 15 gmkhus- khus 50 gmpunchpuran 10 gmMETHOD:-take a pan and heat oil in it-add mustered seeds and punchpuran. wait till it crackles- then add prawns, salt, turmeric pwd and cook it well-then add coconut milk and khus-khus paste Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix-finish with chopped corriander and serve it in a coconut shell ( daab)FISH FRYINGREDIENTSfish (calcutta bekti) 1 kgginger 30 gmgarlic 30 gmmaida 50 gmturmeric power 20 gmsalt 15 gmegg 5 nos.oil for frying 100 mlMETHOD: -take a bowl and add sliced bekti fish -than add ginger garlic paste, turmeric powder, salt, egg and flour- mix it well.then fry in oil and serve
Walking at varying speeds can burn up to 20 percent more calories compared to maintaining a steady pace, the findings showed.“We found that changing speeds can increase the cost of walking substantially,” said study co-author Manoj Srinivasan, professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at The Ohio State University in the US. The researchers found that up to eight percent of the energy we use during normal daily walking could be due to the energy needed to start and stop walking.For the study, they measured the cost of changing walking speeds by having people change their walking pace on a treadmill while its speed remained steady. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“Walking at any speed costs some energy, but when you are changing the speed, you’re pressing the gas pedal, so to speak. Changing the kinetic energy of the person requires more work from the legs and that process certainly burns more energy,” first author of the study Nidhi Seethapathi, doctoral fellow in mechanical engineering at Ohio State University explained. “How do you walk in a manner that burns more energy? Just do weird things. Walk with a backpack, walk with weights on your legs. Walk for a while, then stop and repeat that. Walk in a curve as opposed to a straight line,” he said.The results suggest that by using traditional methods, people may be underestimating the number of calories burned while walking in daily life or playing sports. The study appeared in the journal Biology Letters.
The desire to have women in combat positions has now moved beyond the military to the central police organizations. The Indo-Tibetan Border Police has decided to have women officers recruited directly on the supervisory positions. The para-military organization’s Director-General Krishna Choudhary said on Tuesday women officers in supervisory officers rank – assistant commandments as well – would be recruited to lead the battalions.Talking to reporters at the ITBP headquarters in the national capital, Choudhary said that one-third ITBP will comprise of women officers. They will serve the nation on border posts alongside men in extreme climate conditions of China and Sikkim. In fact, 500 newly recruited women officers are already under training by ITBP. Also Read – Punjab on alert after release of excess water from Bhakra damThe border force plans to deploy three more battalions in the Naxal belt by next year. Presently, five battalions are posted in Narayanpur in Chhattisgarh. There are 1,000 officers in a battalion. That way, the ITBP will have 8,000 officers deployed in the Naxal-affected areas by next year.Speaking of the situation at the India-China border, Choudhary said there were no problems on either side of the fence. He added that whatever differences arise, they are due to “difference of perception”. Also Read – Union Min doubts ‘vote count’ in Bareilly, seeks probe“We should not become war- mongers. We are there on the border to guard, not to fight,” he said. ITBP will soon have 40 more border posts and 12 staging camps in eastern sector of the border, primarily in Arunachal Pradesh. The force has also procured 4,830 night vision devices worth Rs 81 crore for its operations on the border. The force will also have solar power run centrally heated posts on borders which are extremely cold and make it tough to work. These border posts will be operational by next year.
Kolkata: The campus of Visva Bharati University witnessed fresh unrest on late Saturday afternoon with some undergraduate students staging a sit-in demonstration infront of the Vice-Chancellor’s room in the central office building, demanding introduction of supplementary examinations.Three of the agitating students are on a hunger strike to press for their demand and have threatened to intensify the movement if they are not met. A few days back, the students had put V-C Sabujkali Sen’s office under lock due to the same reason. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life”We have been requesting the authorities to sit for talks with us so that the issue can be resolved but they are not interested,” an agitating student said.It may be mentioned that the university follows a semester system at the undergraduate level. Previously, when a student failed to clear a semester, there were facilities for supplementary examinations. However, after a section of teachers and academicians raised concern over the supplementary examinations stating it was affecting the standard of education, a series of meetings were held and the decision of scrapping such examinations was taken. A year back, during the tenure of the earlier V-C, the authorities had brought out a notification stating there will be no supplementary examinations at the undergraduate level. These students who are agitating in demand of supplementary examination have not been able to clear one or two semesters.A senior VB official said the students’ demand have already been communicated to MHRD but there has not been any response as yet.
For the vast majority of Americans who followed the music of John Denver — such as his anthem “Rocky Mountain High” or other big hits like “Country Roads”, and “Sunshine on My Shoulder” — he was unlike any other big musician and songwriter. With his Anna Zapp embroidered shirts, a gigantic pair of glasses, and a smile that melted hearts, Denver jubilantly entertained his audiences and shared with them his love for nature and wildlife.Photo of John Denver from 1974.John Denver is also remembered for leaving this world when his Long-EZ kit plane crashed into Monterey Bay, near Pacific Grove, California, on October 12, 1997 at 5:28 pm local time. The music legend was aged 53 and was flying with a revoked flying license.“Low fuel, a hard-to-reach handle to switch gas tanks and modifications to his homemade airplane may have figured in the crash that killed singer John Denver last year,” opened a report of his death published by the L.A. Times, a few months after the disaster when more precise details were made known following investigations.Denver’s live concert television special An Evening With John Denver (1975).His was born Henry John Deutschendorf, Jr. on December 31, 1943, in Roswell, New Mexico, but found his true home in Colorado. The musician began playing with various bands on the folk music circuit during his college years, and adopted the stage name John Denver after the capital city of his favorite state.Denver’s love for music began at 11-years-old, after his grandma bought him a guitar. And his passion for flying came from his father, Lt. Col. Henry John “Dutch” Deutschendorf, a U.S. Air Force test pilot.Doris Day and John Denver in a 1975 TV special Doris Day Today (CBS, Feb. 19, 1975).In 1969, Peter, Paul and Mary’s version of “Leaving on a Jet Plane,” written by Denver in 1966, made number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. Denver released his first commercial studio album, Rhymes and Reasons, the same year, which he promoted through an informal tour — playing free gigs and bagging local radio airtime as the writer of “Leaving on a Jet Plane.”His invasion of the American charts began quickly. In 1971, “Take Me Home, Country Roads” reached the number two spot, and was followed with a string of number one hits and successful albums. Three years later, his music was honored with the first significant recognition with the Academy of Country Music award for Album of the Year, for Back Home Again.Photo by Ron Galella/WireImageHe was also famed for his TV appearances, especially in Britain where none of his most popular songs — except “Annie’s Song” — did well on the charts. “Sure he was a hippie, but he was one the whole family could enjoy,” wrote the Independent in Denver’s obituary, published two days after his death.John Denver in a television special where he served as the program’s narrator.On the day of the accident, the singer took off from Monterey Peninsular Airport in a plane he had recently bought.It was an experimental homebuilt Long-EZ aircraft. The pre-flight technician report records that Denver was low on fuel at take off, and that the technician recommended the pilot refuel. He also noted that the positioning of the fuel selector handle would have made it difficult for the pilot to switch tanks.A Long-EZ two-seater canard plane.Denver had a history of Piloting an Aircraft Under the Influence of Alcohol, for which he faced court hearings in 1993 and 1994. Since his medical certificate had been revoked in 1996 by the Federal Aviation Administration for failing to maintain sobriety, he no longer held a valid permit to fly.However, the autopsy showed he had not been drinking on the day of his death.John Denver ‘Spirit’ Statue on the Windstar land in Snowmass, Colorado. Photo by SandianeCarter CC BY-SA 3.0So, how did the tragedy unfold? This was Denver’s second flight in his Long-EZ. He had taken around 30 minutes instruction on the ground from a pilot familiar with the model, but the person who built it had made some experimental modifications to the fuel system.A maintenance technician reported that Denver omitted to make a visual check of the fuel levels and refused the technician’s recommendation to top up.Before taking the route towards the ocean, Denver made a series of touch-and-go landings. All was fine until the plane reached the skies above the ocean when it suddenly banked to the right, then plunged into the water. The accident was witnessed by several people as it was happened close to the shore.The plaque marking the location of Denver’s plane crash in Pacific Grove, California Photo by Hardyfam44 CC BY-SA 3.0The official investigation by the National Transport Safety Board concluded that the pilot had most likely lost control of the aircraft after facing issues with the fuel selector, causing it nosedive into the ocean.According to AirSafe.com: “The Board determined that the builder’s decision to locate the unmarked fuel selector handle in a hard-to-access position, unmarked fuel quantity sight gauges, inadequate transition training by the pilot, and his lack of total experience in this type of airplane were factors in the accident.”Had Denver refueled before taking off, he would not have needed to switch to the reserve tank mid-flight. He was an experienced pilot, but his seemingly blasé attitude to making all the necessary pre-flight checks ended in tragedy.Read another story from us: The Day the Music Died – Rock n’ Roll’s Most Fateful Plane FlightHad he been alive today, he would be making plans for his 75th birthday which falls on New Year’s Eve. His music legacy lives on.