Scientists at Harvard University have sketched a new map of the “evolutionary labyrinth” that species must traverse to reach “eusociality,” the rare but spectacularly successful social structure in which individuals of the world’s most dominant species cooperate to raise offspring.Mathematical biologists Martin A. Nowak and Corina E. Tarnita and evolutionary biologist Edward O. Wilson presented their work in the latest edition of the journal Nature, for release Aug. 25. Their modeling showed that the straightforward theory of natural selection alone can explain the evolution of eusocial behavior, without the need for “kin selection” theory, which is based on the concept of inclusive fitness, wherein a creature puts the needs of its close relatives ahead of its own.“The empirical evidence gathered in our paper demonstrates that eusociality is exceedingly rare because species must navigate a lengthy evolutionary labyrinth to reach this state,” said Wilson, the Pellegrino University Professor Emeritus at Harvard. “We hope our new theory for the evolution of eusociality will open up sociobiology to new avenues of research by liberating the study of social evolution from mandatory adherence to kin selection theory. After four decades ruling the roost, it is time to recognize this theory’s very limited prowess.”Eusocial organisms, such as ants, wasps, and bees, form hierarchical social systems with reproductive queens and sterile workers, meaning that many individuals take the evolutionarily counterintuitive step of sacrificing their own reproduction to care for the offspring of others. Kin selection theory, which supports tight genetic ties in such behavior, has been the major theoretical attempt to explain the evolution in such directions.“In some situations, inclusive fitness theory, which tries to calculate fitness effects conferred on relatives, is a suitable alternative to standard population genetics,” said Nowak, professor of mathematics and of biology and director of the University’s Program for Evolutionary Dynamics. “But it is not applicable in general. Our analysis shows that inclusive fitness theory rests on fragile assumptions, which rarely hold in nature.”“Contrary to many previous claims, we prove that inclusive fitness theory is not an extended theory of evolution and is not needed to explain eusociality,” Nowak said. “Standard natural selection theory represents a simpler and superior approach, and provides an exact framework for interpreting empirical observations.”Eusociality is rare, but important in evolutionary biology because the few species that adhere to it — including social insects and, to an extent, humans — rank among the planet’s most dominant. The biomass of ants alone is more than half of all insects, exceeding that of all terrestrial nonhuman vertebrates combined. Humans, who are more loosely eusocial, dominate land vertebrates.“Eusociality has arisen independently some 10 to 20 times in the course of evolution,” said Tarnita, a junior fellow in Harvard’s Society of Fellows. “Our model shows that it is difficult to get eusociality in the first place, but that it is very stable once it is established. A colony behaves like a ‘superorganism,’ reproducing the genome of the queen and the sperm she has stored.”Nowak, Tarnita, and Wilson’s proposal on eusocial evolution sketches out three distinct steps species can take to sidestep eusociality’s evolutionary cost:First, species must form groups within a population, such as when nests or food attract individuals to discrete locations some distance apart, when parents and offspring remain together, or when migrating flocks follow leaders. Finally, individuals must develop genes supporting eusociality, whether by mutation or recombination. Crossing the threshold to eusociality essentially requires that a female and her offspring not disperse to start new, individual nests, but rather remain at the old nest. While eusocial genes have yet to be identified, at least two eusocial ant species are known to have genes that quell the urge to roam from the nest.If these steps are followed and a species becomes eusocial, the evolutionary costs of individuals forgoing reproduction are compensated by the greatly reduced mortality of the queen and her larvae, which are protected by the colony. In some ant species, a queen that might live for only a few months if alone can live for 25 years or more as part of a colony, producing millions of offspring.Nowak, Tarnita, and Wilson’s work was funded by the John Templeton Foundation, the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and J. Epstein. Second, species must accumulate traits, arising through ordinary natural selection, that favor the switch to eusociality. For instance, Ceratina and Lasioglossum bees, which appear perched on the cusp of eusociality, cooperate in foraging, tunneling, and guarding resources. Another such pre-adaptation is progressive provisioning, in which a female builds a nest, lays an egg in it, and then feeds or guards larvae until they mature. Most importantly, the candidate species must build a defensible nest.
Legal diversity must begin early Mark D. Killian Managing Editor Talk all you want about the need to diversify the legal profession, “but if we don’t do better at increasing the number of minorities entering law schools, we are going to be fighting a losing battle.”That’s the message Chief Justice Barbara Pariente imparted at the onset of the Bar’s Third Annual Diversity Symposium April 28 in Orlando.More than 200 lawyers gathered at the new Florida A&M University law school campus for a nine-hour session that touched on diversity in the profession in all its forms, including racial, ethnic, gender, lifestyle, and ability. And while the panelists and participants explored diversity in hiring, in the judiciary, and in Bar leadership, much of the discussion came back to getting more minorities interested in legal careers.And that starts in the schools and starts early, according to Justice Fred Lewis.“Youngsters needs to see lawyers and judges, beginning in the elementary schools,” said Lewis, who will become chief justice in July and has worked closely with the Florida Law Related Education Association since he joined the court in 1999. Lewis is well-known throughout the state as a frequent guest teacher in schools where he is passionate in his efforts to help children grow in their understanding of the law.“If we are really going to be successful in this, it is not going to be sitting here talking about law school passage rates; it is going to be if we get really involved in our communities and within this state and do something serious,” Lewis said, noting he made time to partner with the mostly minority Sable Palm Elementary School in Tallahassee.“From the day I walked in I saw tops of heads,” Lewis said. “The day I left I saw faces.”Lewis said lawyers and judges have an obligation to help young minority students realize they have a “better chance to become a lawyer than they are some professional athlete someplace” and challenged the symposium participants to volunteer in their local schools to promote a better understanding of the law and encourage kids to seek careers in the profession.“I do hope that each of you will come to me next year and say, ‘Yes, I have been out in the school system,’” Lewis said.“I have often said that the legal profession has been very good at integrating every other profession in this country, but it has been very poor at integrating itself,” said James Douglas, FAMU’s interim law dean, adding that diversity is not just a theme or a goal but “involving other human beings actively in the profession.”Robert Jerry, dean of the University of Florida College of Law, said unless legal education exceeds in diversifying the law student population, the profession will be unable to diversify.“It is a cause for concern that law school enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities nationally in ’04-05 is only 21 percent,” Jerry said.He also agreed that getting minority students into the legal education pipeline needs to begin early, but is hindered from the get-go in that children as young as three and four already experience disparate treatment and outcomes. He said a 2005 Yale study found black kids are almost twice as likely to be expelled as Hispanic or white children and boys more than 4.5 percent that of girls. It gets no better in high school, where a Harvard study found white students graduate at a rate of 74.9 percent compared with 50.2 percent graduation rate for blacks. In college, the racial and ethnic disparity continues. According to the ABA, for academic year 2002-03, white college students received 70 percent of Bachelor of Science degrees. Blacks earned 8.7 percent of college degrees that year; with comparable rates of 6.3 percent for Hispanics; 6.2 percent for Asian/Pacific Islanders; and 0.7 percent for American Indian/Alaska natives.“It is in the interest of the Bar, as well as the interest of the state generally, to improve the educational system at levels below law school,” said Florida International University Law Dean Leonard Strickman. That more than anything else will assure more minority lawyers and a more representative legal profession.”Strickman said until more minorities obtain college degrees, the pool of minority candidates eligible for law school will remain very small.“We will increase the number of minority lawyers when we increase the educational excellence or the educational quality in the elementary, secondary, and the baccalaureate levels in the state of Florida,” Strickman said. “That is crucial. We do not want to fight over the same students.”“If this Bar commits itself to going into the schools and putting on programs for kids, showing them there is a profession out there they can aspire to, they will do better in school. We will get more kids in the pipeline and we will begin to achieve our dream,” said 11th Circuit Judge Gill Freeman. “It is a long-term goal.”Chief Justice Pariente said the profession has come a long way since she started practicing in 1973, but still has miles to go.“We have the reality of fairness and then the perception of fairness,” Pariente said. “I’m not sure we are doing a very good job in either.”The chief justice noted that in Florida 17 percent of the population is Hispanic, 15 percent African American, and 23 percent of Floridians speak a language other than English in the home. Yet, she said, the legal profession remains overwhelming white.“As much as I’m pleased. . . with the entry of FAMU and FIU into the law school community, by no means can we believe that because the law schools have been created that the problem of the limited number of minorities in the Bar has been somehow solved,” Pariente said.Women make up 32 percent of the Bar, up from 10 percent 25 years ago. The number of Hispanic lawyers has risen from 5 percent in 1993 to 7 percent, according to 2004 statistics. But, Pariente said, “We have made little or no progress” in increasing the number of black Florida lawyers, which has remained static at 2 percent since 1999.The chief justice also said it did not help that the legislature abolished the Florida Minority Participation in Legal Education and Virgil Hawkins scholarship programs after the law schools at FAMU and FIU were created.Florida State University Law Dean Don Weidner says FSU minority enrollment has declined since One Florida was adopted and the two minority scholarship programs were abolished. He said 10 years ago Florida State regularly recruited minority students from historically black universities across the nation. Tuition breaks and scholarships could pay their tuition and give them up to $34,0000 for living expenses during their three years at the school.“Now we say come to our law school, pay $82,000 for your three years tuition, and we no longer have minority scholarships funded by the state,” Weidner said. “That is a heck of a challenge.”Administrative Law Judge Fred Buckine said the need for diversity in the legal profession was driven home for him years ago.“When someone comes before you to expect justice, there is an element of confidence and fairness when that person who is administrating justice looks like you,” Judge Buckine said. “We had a young man come in and we had a black magistrate, black bailiff, black court reporter, black guard, and when the white defendant was brought into the courtroom, he starts screaming and struggling and said that this is not fair.”What the white defendant was doing, Buckine said, was processing the circumstances through his mindset of how he determined fairness.“That’s why diversity is essential in the judiciary,” Judge Buckine said, noting also that it is politics that determine the makeup of the judiciary.“I say to every young lawyer — black, white, or whatever — if you anticipate being a part of the judiciary, become politically active as soon as you can,” he said. “Volunteer your time if you don’t have money, and when you get a job, volunteer your money.” Beginning in the elementary schools, students need to see lawyers Legal diversity must begin early May 15, 2006 Regular News
Competition in the lending landscape is fierce. Today’s consumers are shopping for great rates. But, long-term success is about more than price points. It’s about staying focused on the people you serve.Credit unions have made this a reality since the beginning. But, a 2015 study from Accenture suggests just how critical it is to provide experiences that run deeper than the lending event.The study showed:Nearly 80 percent of consumers consider their banking relationship transactional, not advice-driven.Millennials are twice as likely to switch financial institutions as other consumer groups.Taking action to know consumers better, re-imagine your financial experience and deepen/sustain relationships can make a difference in your success, now and in the future. continue reading » 105SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr
Buying loan participations enables credit unions to diversify their balance sheets, more profitably deploy excess liquidity, and increase revenue. However, too many credit unions remain on the sidelines because they are uncertain if they will be able to correctly assess the credit risk or manage a cumbersome due diligence and post-sale reporting processes. Much like sales of loan participations, several myths linger and continue to discourage purchases of loan participations. However, new technology enables savvy buyers to automate and more accurately manage the loan participation process. Thus, it’s important to have the latest knowledge when determining whether this is the right strategy for your credit union. Here are some common myths about buying loan participations — and the facts to debunk them. Myth: Participation loans are just the “bad”loans — risky and of low quality.The Truth: Most lenders agree that one of the best indicators of whether a loan will perform is whether it is currently performing. This adage is why such a large percentage of the participation market consists of performing, seasoned loans. While loans can go bad, including participated loans, it is a complete myth that selling credit unions specifically seek out loans they expect to under-perform. If anything, sellers care deeply about their market reputation for quality loans and servicing. Furthermore, buyers have contractual rights set forth in the participation agreement, covering critical terms such as how a loan can be modified and, in special circumstances, the removal of the lead credit union as servicer. The combination of seasoned loans, marketplace reputation, and contractual rights is why more and more credit unions are leveraging loan participations to complement their organic originations. Myth: Buying a loan participation means venturing into the unknownThe Truth: Quite the contrary. Today, buyers know the selling credit union upfront and receive robust due diligence on the underlying loans quickly and cost-effectively. Technology enables buyers to obtain granular data on the seller and individual loans so a purchasing credit union knows exactly what it is buying. Buyers can review a host of information including: the seller’s origination, servicing, collection, repossession, audited financials, as well as historical (charge-off) performance in secure online data rooms, in conjunction with the ability to review the particular loans, all online. Additionally, with modern participation reporting tools, buyers can receive timely and accurate monthly reports covering both financial and regulatory information. Rather than entering the unknown, buyers should consider the participation technologies they are using so that they can ensure they are receiving the right information both before the transaction and over the life of the loans.Myth: The NCUA and Examiners tend to be critical of credit unions that purchase loan participations. The Truth: Not true. In fact, the NCUA is quite supportive of loan participations. Over the past few years, NCUA has conducted numerous webinars (here and here) and issued regulatory guidance to support an effective and well-run participation program (found here).To be sure, the NCUA and Examiners will always review new and existing participation programs to make sure that credit unions are engaged in safe and sound practices. But, in many ways, the failure to have a well-grounded participation program is a risk unto itself as that generally means the credit union has less diversification, less liquidity or less income or less of all of the above than if the credit union had a well-designed and implemented program.Myth: All monthly participation reports are the SAME. The Truth: The quality, accuracy, and timeliness of participation reporting varies dramatically. Purchasing credit unions should absolutely seek to review the proposed monthly participation reports before making a purchase and understand the typical timeline for their delivery.Many credit unions fail to enter into the participation marketplace because they believe they cannot get timely, accurate monthly reports. However, nothing could be further from the truth. Having the right technology partners ensures that buyers receive the right reports, covering the full month, on time.On the other hand, many credit unions that are current purchasers have simply ceded to monthly reporting that is inaccurate, delayed or only covering a partial month. Many believe this to be the status quo, with no alternative solutions. Some credit unions presume, or worse yet, just hope that monthly reporting errors are not material. This belief could not be further from the truth.Credit unions who actively purchase participations, or are interested in doing so, should demand what they are contractually and regulatorily entitled to: timely, accurate and robust monthly reports, covering the full reporting period, delivered in time to close monthly financial statements and quarterly regulatory reports. Great reporting is not wishful thinking — it is a legitimate ask and requirement. The key to obtaining it boils down to working with the right technology partners.NCUA Weighs in on Reporting In 2018, the NCUA’s Office of General Counsel issued an opinion highlighting the need for accurate monthly reporting as the failure to do so is oftentimes a regulatory failure as well. Factoring in this updated guidance along with upcoming CECL requirements, detailed, accurate and timely ongoing reporting is no longer optional. Myth: Credit unions can only purchase the types of loans they originate The Truth: Generally, credit unions can participate in any loan they are “empowered” to make. This means that so long as the purchasing credit union has the appropriate policies in place and has the internal expertise to understand the credit risk, there is no specific requirement that a credit union only purchase the kinds of loans that they organically originate. In fact, part of the point of having a participation program is to diversify the purchasing credit union’s risk profile and leverage the skills and talents of other credit unions. For example, while a credit union may not have the internal marketing capacity to originate residential mortgages, it does not mean that the credit union cannot purchase residential mortgages from another credit union. Rather, as long as the purchasing credit union has the appropriate policies in place for residential mortgages and understands the risks of such lending, a purchasing credit union can very well make that purchase.The regulations that cover loan participations, which can be found here, do not place restrictions on the types of loans credit unions can purchase. Still, it’s important to thoroughly understand the type of assets being purchased and the risks associated with them. This may mean hiring a skilled third party to perform due diligence on the assets. It’s also imperative to clearly specify the types of loans allowed for purchase in a loan participation policy. 10SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr,Ian Lampl Ian Lampl is CEO & Co-Founder of LoanStreet Inc., an innovative online platform that helps financial institutions share, manage, and originate loans.Prior to launching LoanStreet, Ian served as Deputy … Web: https://www.loan-street.com Details
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Comment Metro Sport ReporterSaturday 9 Nov 2019 7:41 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link832Shares Unai Emery posts worse record than Arsene Wenger after Arsenal’s defeat to Leicester Unai Emery saw Arsenal get beaten by Leicester City (Getty Images)Unai Emery has a worse record in the Premier League than Arsene Wenger recorded in his final year at Arsenal following the 2-0 defeat to Leicester City on Saturday.The Gunners have now registered just one win in their last six Premier League matches and are eight points behind fourth-placed Manchester City, who face Liverpool at Anfield on Sunday.Goals from Jamie Vardy and James Maddison secured a 2-0 victory for Leicester City, while Arsenal once again faded as the game progressed and were unable to provide an answer after going behind.The defeat means that in his 50 Premier League games in charge of Arsenal, Emery has recorded 87 points.ADVERTISEMENT Advertisement Advertisement Arsenal failed to respond after going behind against Leicester City (AFP via Getty Images)More: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man CityAdvertisementAdvertisementBut that total is one shy of Arsenal’s final 50 Premier League matches with Wenger at the helm as the Frenchman was able to register 88 points.The result means further pressure is now on Emery, with supporters calling for the Spaniard to be sacked during the international break. Arsene Wenger’s last 50 games are better than Emery’s first 50 in the Premier League (Sky Sports)Both Edu and Raul Sanllehi, Arsenal’s head of football, were in the stands to watch the Gunners’ latest defeat.Reports have suggested that Arsenal’s hierarchy will continue to back Emery, but negative results will likely turn the tide against the Spaniard.More: Arsenal FCArsenal flop Denis Suarez delivers verdict on Thomas Partey and Lucas Torreira movesThomas Partey debut? Ian Wright picks his Arsenal starting XI vs Manchester CityArsene Wenger explains why Mikel Arteta is ‘lucky’ to be managing Arsenal
The home at 19 Cubberla St, Fig Tree Pocket, is up for sale.This Fig Tree Pocket home has the perks of rural living without leaving the city.The 19 Cubberla St property is for sale after Lisa Bonifant and her family had to move for family reasons. The alfresco dining area looks over the pool.They had lived in the area for 12 years, the last two of which were spent in this home. Mrs Bonifant said they spent many hours taking advantage of the indoor-to-outdoor flow.“There is a beautiful big kitchen with bi-folds that open out to a large alfresco dining area which looks over the swimming pool,” Mrs Bonifant said.“The kids could be in the pool and I could watch them from the kitchen, or we could just be sitting around outside and having a few drinks with friends.” One of several living spaces.The home has multiple living areas, including a media room, and downstairs there is a large multipurpose area.Mrs Bonifant said the home is ideal for a family.“It’s a really good layout, it’s a little separate from the kids and private, but still not too far away.“You can walk straight to the school and lollipop person without having to cross any roads.” Open plan living.More from newsDigital inspection tool proves a property boon for REA website3 Apr 2020The Camira homestead where kids roamed free28 May 2019The property has been extensively landscaped by the family and has aspects for those either with a green thumb, or wanting to teach their kids about sustainable living.“It’s got a vegetable garden with the most beautiful tomatoes,” Mrs Bonifant said.“Watching the kids collect eggs for the first time was also really special.”The home is sprawled out over a 1400sq m block, and has five bedrooms and two bathrooms.The master is separate to the other bedrooms, creating the ultimate parents’ retreat.There is a his and hers walk-in wardrobe and an ensuite with double vanity and shower. A large modern kitchen complete with breakfast bar.
The Guardian 5 November 2013Ireland is to hold a referendum in mid-2015 on whether to allow same-sex marriage, the Republic’s government has said.The decision, announced on Tuesday, is a victory for the deputy prime minister, Eamon Gilmore, who has been lobbying for a national vote.The vote will be held as part of a special “constitution day”, in which a wide-ranging referendum could result in other changes to the Republic’s constitution such as the abolition of blasphemy laws.Before Tuesday’s cabinet meeting, Gilmore said he hoped the Fine Gael-Labour government would back moves toward full equality in Ireland.Gilmore, who is leader of the Irish Labour party, said it would be “important to win this referendum”.http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/05/ireland-referendum-gay-marriage
Food & DiningLifestyle Tilapia with Grape Chutney. by: – July 20, 2011 28 Views no discussions Recipe source: Better Homes and Gardens Directions:Thaw fish if frozen. Rinse fish; pat dry with paper towels. Season with salt and pepper.In a 12-inch skillet heat oil over medium-high heat; add fish. Cook 3 to 4 minutes or until fish flakes easily, turning once. Meanwhile, halve grapes.Transfer fish to platter; keep warm. Add grapes, fruit bits, onions, and spreadable fruit to skillet; cook and stir 2 minutes. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Serve sauce over fish. Share Share Share Tilapia with Grape Chutney.Tilapia is a versatile whitefish that the whole family will love. This recipe is healthy, easy, and economical, which makes this dish a great catch. This fish is pan fried and transferred to a serving platter.Grapes, dried fruit, green onions, and spreadable fruit are then cooked in the same pan and poured over this sweet-savory fish.Ingredients:4 4-oz. fresh or frozen skinless tilapia or sole filletsSalt and pepper2 Tbsp. cooking oil1 cup seedless green grapes1/2 cup tropical blend mixed dried fruit bits1/3 cup sliced green onions1/3 cup apricot spreadable fruitCooked brown rice (optional) Sharing is caring! Tweet
Former Manchester United boss, Sir Alex Ferguson, is again challenging his neighbours over their plans to build a three-storey mansion next to his £2.3m home. Loading… Ferguson admits that the alterations go “some way to reducing the building’s prominence”, but the former manager is unhappy with the height of the central section of the project, according to The Sun. Read Also:Sir Ferguson arrives ahead FA Derby against County The 78-year-old also criticised the proposed mansion’s “visual mass and bulk”, which is not in keeping with his neighbourhood in Wilmslow, Cheshire. FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Promoted Content7 Theories About The Death Of Our UniverseWhich Country Is The Most Romantic In The World?20 Facts That’ll Change Your Perception Of “The Big Bang Theory”Top 10 Female Stars Everyone Had A Crush On In The 90sWho Is The Most Powerful Woman On Earth?You’ve Only Seen Such Colorful Hairdos In A Handful Of Anime10 Risky Jobs Some Women Do7 Ways To Understand Your Girlfriend Better7 Ways To Understand Your Girlfriend Better8 Most Beautiful Chinese WomenWho Earns More Than Ronaldo?11 Most Immersive Game To Play On Your Table Top The United legend’s protests saw the initial plans for the new build rejected last year, but they have now been resubmitted with a number of changes made.Advertisement